The Navstar Global Positioning System

Author: Tom Logsdon,
Tags: Technology
1 The Science of Navigation.- What Is Navigation?.- A Typical Ground-Based Radionavigation System.- The Advantages of Space-based Transmitters.- The Transit Navigation Satellites.- Gravity Gradient Stabilization.- Disturbance Compensation Systems.- Compensating for Ionospheric Delays.- Compensating for Tropospheric Delays.- Navigation Techniques.- The Navstar Revolution.- Navstar Navigation Techniques.- The Navstar Clocks.- Practical Benefits for All Mankind.- 2 The Navstar GPS.- The Space Segment.- Signal Structure and Pseudorandom Codes.- Navigation Solutions.- Correcting for Relativistic Time Delays.- Correcting for Ionospheric and Tropospheric Delays.- Decoding the 50-Bit-Per-Second Data Stream.- The Various Families of Navstar Satellites.- The User Segment.- A Typical High-Performance 5-Channel Receiver.- Operating Procedures.- The Control Segment.- Inverting the Navigation Solution.- The Monitor Stations and The Master Control Station.- Field Test Results.- 3 Performance Comparisons for Today¡¯s Radionavigation Systems.- A Sampling of Today¡¯s Ground-based Navigation Systems.- Loran C/D.- Omega.- VOR/DME Tacan.- The Microwave Landing System.- Inertial Navigation.- JTIDS Relnav and PLRS.- Signpost Navigation Techniques.- A Sampling of Today¡¯s Space-based Navigation Systems.- Transit.- The Navstar Global Positioning System.- The French Argos.- Side-by-side Performance Comparisons.- 4 User-Set Architecture.- The Major Components of a Typical Navstar Receiver.- The Receiver Antenna and Its Associated Electronics.- The Tracking Loops.- Navigation Processor.- Power Supply.- Control-Display Unit.- Choosing the Proper User-set Architecture.- Performance Comparisons.- Selecting the Antennas.- Selecting the Proper Computer Processing Techniques.- Solving for the User¡¯s Position.- Computing and Interpreting the Geometrical Dilution of Precision.- Ranging Error Budgets.- Kalman Filtering Techniques.- 5 User-set Performance.- Accuracy Estimates for Various Methods of Navigation.- Performance Criteria to Consider when Purchasing a Navstar Receiver.- Receiver Design Choices.- Number of Channels and Sequencing Rate.- Access to Selective-availability Signals.- Available Performance Enhancement Techniques.- Computer Processing Capabilities.- Receiver Design Smart Card.- Today¡¯s Available Navstar Receivers.- Hand-held Receivers.- Commercially Available Navstar Chipsets.- 6 Differential Navigation and Pseudo-satellites.- Performance Comparisons: Absolute and Differential Navigation.- Special Committee 104¡¯s Recommended Data-exchange Protocols.- The Coast Guard¡¯s Differential Navigation System Tests.- Motorola¡¯s Mini Ranger Test Results.- COMSAT¡¯s Data Distribution Service for the Gulf of Mexico.- Wide-area Differential Navigation Services.- Pseudo-satellites.- Special Committee 104¡¯s Data Exchange Protocols for Pseudo-satellites.- Comparisons Between Differential Navigation and Pseudo-satellites.- 7 Interferometry Techniques.- The Classical Michaelson-Morley Interferometry Experiment.- Measuring Attitude Angles with Special Navstar Receivers.- Eliminating Solution Ambiguities.- Practical Test Results.- Using Interferometry to Fix Position.- Single, Double, and Triple Differencing Techniques.- The POPS Post-Processing Software.- Spaceborne Interferometry Receivers.- Motorola¡¯s Commercially Available Monarch.- Tomorrow¡¯s Generic Spaceborne Receivers.- 8 Integrated Navigation Systems.- Integrated Navigation.- Inertial Navigation.- Error Growth Rates.- Reinitialization Techniques.- Ring Laser Gyros.- Monolithic Ring Laser Gyros.- Fiber Optic Gyros.- Using the GPS for Testing Inertial Navigation Systems.- The Practical Benefits of Integrated Navigation.- Chassis-level Integration.- 9 Interoperability with Other Navigation Systems.- The Soviet Glonass.- The Glonass Specification Release at Montreal.- The Glonass Constellation.- Orbital Maneuvers for the Glonass Satellites.- Building Dual-capability GPS/Glonass Receivers.- Receiver Design Difficulties.- Dual-Capability Receiver Tests at Leeds University.- The FAA¡¯s Joint Research Efforts with Soviet Scientists.- Other Attempts to Build Dual-capability Receivers.- Integrity Monitoring Techniques.- Interoperability with Other Radionavigation Systems.- Eastport International¡¯s Integrated System for Underwater Navigation.- 10 The Navstar Satellites.- The Eight Major Spacecraft Subsystems.- The Orbit Injection Subsystem.- Tracking, Telemetry and Command.- Attitude and Velocity Control.- Electrical Power.- Navigation Subsystem.- Reaction Control.- Thermal Control.- Structures and Mechanisms.- On-orbit Test Results.- The Multiyear Spacecraft Procurement.- Booster Rockets.- Orbital Perturbations.- The Spacecraft Ephemeris Constants.- Satellite Viewing Angles.- Earth-shadowing Intervals.- Repeating Ground-trace Geometry.- 11 Precise Time Synchronization.- John Harrison¡¯s Marine Chronometer.- Celestial Navigation Techniques.- A Short History of Time.- The Atomic Clocks Carried Aboard the Navstar Satellites.- Cesium Atomic Clocks.- Rubidium Atomic Clocks.- Developing Atomic Clocks Light Enough to Travel Into Space.- The Growing Need for Precise Time Synchronization.- Time Sync Methodologies.- Fixing Time with the Navstar Signals.- Lightweight Hydrogen Masers for Tomorrow¡¯s Navstar Satellites.- Crosslink Ranging Techniques.- 12 Digital Avionics and Air Traffic Control.- The Sabreliner¡¯s Flight to the Paris Air Show.- Four Major Concerns of the Federal Aviation Administration.- Selective Availability.- User-Set Fees.- Integrity-related Failures.- Continuous Five-satellite Coverage.- Using a Dedicated Constellation for Air Traffic Control.- An Alternative Architecture Using the GPS.- Comparisons Between Geosynchronous and Semisynchronous Constellations.- Piggyback Geosynchronous Payloads.- The Autoland System Test Results.- 13 Geodetic Surveying and Satellite Positioning.- Determining the Shape of Planet Earth.- The Theory of Isostasy.- The Earth¡¯s Contours Under Hydrostatic Equilibrium.- GPS Calibrations at the Turtmann Test Range.- Static Surveying Techniques.- Kinematic and Pseudo-kinematic Surveying.- Freeway Surveying During War in the Persian Gulf.- Navstar Positioning for Landsat D.- The Landsat¡¯s Spaceborne Receiver.- On-Orbit Navigation Accuracy.- Orbit Determination for High-altitude Satellites.- Today¡¯s Available Spaceborne Receivers.- 14 Military Applications.- The Military Benefits of the Worldwide Common Grid.- Field Test Results.- Projected Battlefield Benefits.- Test Range Applications.- Military Receivers.- Carrier-landing Accuracies.- Amphibious Warfare Operations.- Accuracy-enhancements for Strategic and Cruise Missiles.- 15 Civil Applications.- Dinosaur Hunting with the GPS.- Guiding Archaeological Expeditions.- Tracking Hazardous Icebergs.- Offshore Oil Exploration.- Fixing the Positions of Railroad Trains.- Automobile Navigation.- Dead Reckoning Systems.- Tomorrow¡¯s Space-based Vehicle Navigation Techniques.- Today¡¯s Available Automotive Navigation Systems.- Futuristic Applications for Navstar Navigation.- Appendix A Additional Sources of lnformation.- GPS Information Centers.- The U.S. Coast Guard¡¯s Information Center.- The Computer Bulletin Board at Holloman Air Force Base.- Global Satellite Software¡¯s Computer Bulletin Board.- The Glonass Computer Bulletin Board.- Precise GPS Orbit Information.- Military GPS Information Directory.- GPS Information with a European Flavor.- The United Kingdom.- The Netherlands.- Norway.- GPS Clock Behavior.- Information for Surveyors.- GPS World Magazine.- The Federal Radionavigation Plan.- Appendix B Today¡¯s Global Family of User-set Makers.- Domestic User-set Makers.- Foreign User-set Makers.- Appendix C Navigation-Related Clubs and Organizations.- Appendix D Navigation-related Magazines and Periodicals.

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